Molecular response of liquid nitrogen multiply shocked to 40 GPa.

Molecular response of liquid nitrogen multiply shocked to 40 GPa.

Liquid nitrogen was subjected to a number of shock compression to study its response to pressures (15-40 GPa) and temperatures (1800-4000 Okay) beforehand unexplored in static and shock compression research. Raman spectroscopy measurements had been used to characterize the molecular bond response and to decide temperatures within the peak state. By extending our evaluation to embrace different Raman spectroscopy measurements, an empirical relation was developed that describes the strain and temperature dependence of the Raman shift (of the 2330 cm(-1) mode) for each shock and static compression. Based on the P-T dependence of the Raman shifts, the liquid nitrogen molecular response is finest understood by contemplating three temperature regimes: under 1500 Okay, 1500-4000 Okay, and above 4000 Okay.

For the pressures and temperatures accessed within the current work, liquid nitrogen stays a molecular fluid, and turns into a grey-body emitter on the highest pressures. We fabricated a number of sapphire screw threads and carried out a energy check on them on the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 Okay. The screw threads had been subjected to and withstood a 3000 N load. To the perfect of our data, that is the primary energy check of sapphire screw threads at a cryogenic temperature. The consequence suggests a brand new means of connecting sapphire parts. Although sapphire is already utilized in many purposes, the consequence might present a brand new means to use the fabric as a structural aspect in much more purposes.

Post-thaw sperm traits following long-term storage of boar semen in liquid nitrogen.

This examine investigated the impact of long-term liquid nitrogen storage of semen from particular person boars on post-thaw sperm traits. Ejaculates, collected from 5 Polish giant white (PLW) and 5 Polish landrace (PLR) boars, had been frozen utilizing a regular cryopreservation protocol. Post-thaw evaluation was carried out inside per week (Period 1) and 42-48 months (Period 2) of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw sperm assessments included whole motility, mitochondrial operate (JC-1/PI assay), osmotic integrity (SYBR-14/PI assay), osmotic resistance check (ORT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) standing and DNA fragmentation, analysed by the impartial Comet assay. Individual boar variability inside breed and cryostorage durations had important results on the analysed parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa.
Prolonged semen storage in liquid nitrogen (Period 2) induced a marked discount in post-thaw sperm motility, mitochondrial operate and plasma membrane integrity in most of the boars. Post-thaw semen of eight boars exhibited a marked lower in osmotic resistance of the sperm acrosomal membrane, whereas a major improve within the sperm cryo-susceptibility to induced LPO and DNA fragmentation was noticed solely in three boars after long-term semen storage.
Additionally, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of PLR boars exhibited considerably decrease osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane than PLW boars following extended semen storage in liquid nitrogen. The outcomes of this examine present proof of ageing processes in frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa following extended cryostorage. It appears that, although cryopreservation permits long-term semen storage in liquid nitrogen, spermatozoa from particular person boars are extra vulnerable to cryo-induced harm.
Molecular response of liquid nitrogen multiply shocked to 40 GPa.

Analysis of an explosion accident of nitrogen trichloride in a waste liquid containing ammonium ion and platinum black.

 

Five liters of sodium hypochlorite aqueous answer (12 mass%) was poured into 300 L of liquid waste containing ammonium ion of about 1.eight mol/L in a 500 L tank in a plant space; then, two minutes later the answer exploded with a flash on March 30th, 2005. The tank cowl, the fluorescent lamp and the air duct had been damaged by the blast wave. Thus, we’ve got performed 40 runs of laboratory-scale explosion exams below varied situations (answer concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 and NaClO, temperatures, Pt catalysts, pH, and many others.) to examine the causes for such an explosion.

When options of ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite are combined within the presence of platinum black, explosions consequence. This is ascribable to the formation of explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3). In the case the place it’s essential to combine these 2 options (ammonium sulfate and sodium hypochlorite) within the presence of platinum black, the next situations would scale back a chance of explosion; the preliminary focus of NH4(+) needs to be lower than three mol/L and the pH needs to be larger than 6. The hypochlorite answer (in 1/10 in quantity) to be added at room temperature is advisable to be lower than 0.6 mol/L.

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Contribution of the collagen fibers into the plasticity of human dentin is taken into account. Mechanical testing of dentin at low temperature permits excluding the plastic response of its natural matrix. Therefore, deformation and fracture conduct of the dentin samples below diametral compression at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature are in contrast. At 77Okay dentin behaves like virtually brittle materials: it’s deformed completely within the elastic regime and it fails due to progress of the only real crack. On the opposite, dentin demonstrates the ductile response at 300Okay.

There are each elastic and plastic contributions within the deformation of dentin samples. Multiple cracking and crack tip blunting precede the failure of samples. Organic section performs an necessary position in fracture of dentin: plasticity of the collagen fibers might inhibit the crack progress. We goal to deal with this hole by validating two “field-friendly” cell tradition protocols, one utilizing a small quantity of venous entire blood, and one other utilizing finger stick capillary entire blood. 

 

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