Nuclear Energy

Learning Objectives
Pupils learn about atomic energy generation by means of a nuclear power plant virtual field trip that includes visiting four websites and watching a short video taken inside a nuclear energy plant. A handout that offers questions and the URLs to answer from their readings guides them. They end to talk about their findings and reflections. It’s recommended that students complete the related activity, Chernobyl Empathy, before conducting this lesson; performing so aids students in gaining a better understanding of how nuclear meltdowns can be, which underscores the importance of engineering. Engineers often must analyze complicated issues. Developing a full comprehension of the intricacies of structures and complex systems helps engineers discover the root causes of problems, which can be necessary so as to develop solutions that are optimal with fewer unintended consequences. It is important for engineersas well as students pursuing engineering career avenues –to be in a position to research systems and synthesize that information in order to solve problems.

  • Steam turbine process
  • Nuclear fission
  • Fuel type(s) and secure use/disposal
  • Atomic power plant construction and facilities
  • Safety procedures and problems
  • Benefits/drawbacks of nuclear-generated power in comparison to this benefits/drawbacks of other types of power production
Continue Reading

Nomenclature

TWO is that both may finish their titles.
ONE is the compound formulas and also the compound names (nomenclature) are inclined to begin with the element directly to the left to the table.
Which component comes in the chemical or title?

Here we’ll explain to you the way you can forecast the element. CsF is Cesium Fluoride. Another illustration is. That means when we pick out two components and set them together, we need them to maintain the right order.

But, both ionic and covalent substances have a few rules in normal.

How do you change the ending of a chemical name?
The next part of this naming system that covalent and ionic compounds have in common is any binary compound (chemical composed of 2 components ) has the end -IDE from the name. This -IDE generally replaces the -suffix in most elemental names. It becomes tacky as it is a component of a compound, if you choose the element fluorine. Oxygen can be strange. It becomes oxide.

Continue Reading

Ion Table

Ions positifs (cations)
Aluminium Al 3+ 
Ammonium NH4 +
Antimoine (III) Sb3+
Antimoine (V) Sb5+
Argent Ag +
Arsenic (III) As3+
Arsenic (V) As5+
Baryum Ba2+
Béryllium Be2+
Bismuth (III) Bi3+
Bismuth (V) Bi5+
Cadmium Cd2+
Calcium Ca 2+ 
Chrome (II) Cr 2+ 
Chrome (III) Cr 3+ 
Cobalt (II) Co 2+ 
Cobalt (III) Co 3+ 
Cuivre (I) Cu
Cuivre (II) Cu 2+ 
Étain (II) Sn 2+ 
Étain (IV) Sn 4+ 
Fer (II) Fe 2+ 
Fer (III) Fe 3+ 
Hydrogène, hydronium ** H + , H3O
Lithium Li
Magnésium Mg 2+ 
Manganèse (II) Mn 2+ 
Manganèse (IV) Mn 4+ 
Mercure (I)* Hg2 2+ 
Mercure (II) Hg 2+ 
Nickel Ni 2+ 
Oxonium ** H3O
Plomb (II) Pb 2+ 
Plomb (IV) Pb 4+ 
Potassium K
Scandium Sc 2+ 
Sodium Na
Strontium Sr 2+ 
Zinc Zn 2+ 
* Les ions de mercure(I) se produi-
sent en groupes de 2, le symbole
est Hg2 et la charge totale +2.
** L’ion H3O+ peut être considéré
formellement comme résultant de
l’addition de H+ sur des ions oxyde
O2. Dans ce cas, le nom de l’ion
est formé à partir de celui de
l’anion auquel on ajoute la
désinence onium. Cela donne dans
le cas présent : oxonium. L’ ion
H3O+ est parfois appelé hydronium
mais cette terminologie n’est pas
recommandée par l’UICPA.
Ions négatifs (anions)
Acétate CH3COO
Borate BO3 3-
Bromate BrO3
Bromure Br
Carbonate CO3 2-
Chlorate ClO3
Chlorite ClO2
Chlorure Cl
Chromate CrO42-
Cyanamide CN22-
Cyanure CN
Dichromate Cr2O72-
Dihydrogénophosphate H2PO4
Ferricyanure Fe(CN)63-
Ferrocyanure Fe(CN)64-
Fluorure F
Hydrogénocarbonate HCO3
Hydrogénophosphate HPO42-
Hydrogénosulfate HSO4
Hydrogénosulfite HSO3
Hydrogénosulfure HS
Hydroxyde OH
Hydrure H
Hypochlorite ClO
Iodate IO3
Iodure I
Nitrate NO3
Nitrite NO2
Nitrure N3-
Oxalate C2O42-
Oxyde O2-
Perchlorate ClO4
Permanganate MnO4
Peroxyde O22-
Phosphate PO43-
Phosphite PO33-
Phosphure P3-
Silicate SiO44-
Stannate SnO32-
Stannite SnO22-
Sulfate SO42-
Sulfure S2-
Sulfite SO32-
Tartrate C4H4O62-
Thiocynate SCN

 
© 1997-2006  Ivan Noels
 

Continue Reading

Household

The researchers focused on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a complete selection of household items. VOCs react with sunlight to form ozone pollution. This escapes into the environment and gets trapped causing contamination in our homes. The scientists said VOCs interact to make particles. These particles may lead to lung damage. Dr McDonald said governments should regulate household products more tightly to reduce their negative impact. He issued a stark warning, stating:”The things I use in the morning to prepare for work are similar to emissions which come out of the tailpipe of my vehicle .”
Scientists say we’re unaware of a massive cause of pollution that is right under our very noses. Household items like toothpaste, shaving cologne, deodorant, foam and furniture polish contain. An air-pollution researcher at the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, dr Brian McDonald, conducted research into our homes create pollution. His group was surprised to find that household items now contribute on types of air pollution as automobiles, trucks and other vehicles. Dr McDonald explained that as”the transportation sector gets cleaner, these other resources. . .become more and more important”.

Continue Reading

Amino Table

One of the four main groups of macromolecules you really have been analyzing (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides), proteins are among the biggest and undoubtedly the most diverse. Much like all the macromolecules proteins are polymers composed of monomers. The monomers are amino acids. In this lesson you will study the assortment of amino acids used to build proteins, the arrangement of amino acids, and also the form that proteins may take and that form is linked to protein function.

Basic Amino Acid Structure

Go to John Kyrk’s Website and study the structure of Glycine, the simplest of amino acids.
What are the two functional groups attached to the carbon dioxide? Write out their formulae.
Today go to the next page of this site (click on the yellow triangle on the left). You should see a table listing the 20 amino acids found in proteins. Click the three letter abbreviation of every amino acid and then read the info about each one. Study the structure of every amino acid; specifically listen to the group attached to the carbon. What is an amino acid?
Are all amino acids composed of only H, C, O, and N? Explain.
How many amino acids are polar? Non-polar? Acidic, Fundamental?
How do you identify one different amino acid from another? Give an example.
Move the cursor over the atoms at the diagram of the molecule until you find the central”alpha” carbon.

Primary Structure, Peptide Bonds

Click on the yellow triangle to achieve the”Primary Structure, Peptide Bonds” page. You may have to see this short cartoon a couple of times, but notice the amino acids socialize as they associate together for form peptide bonds and form a polymer generally called a”polypeptide. The linear arrangement of amino acids in a polypeptide (or protein) is known as the”main” structure of the molecule.
(hydrogen, covalent, ionic)What type of chemical reaction happens when the peptide bonds have been formed? How can you know this? In a polypeptide composed of 25 amino acids how many of them are going to have a comprehensive amino group (NH2) and how many will have a comprehensive carboxyl group (COOH)?

Secondary Structure, The Alpha Helix and Beta Sheet

Click the third triangle to visit the page describing the alpha helix. Notice the overall 3D shape of the helix. Then click on the yellow triangle for the webpage describing the beta sheet examine its form. These larger structures in a protein molecule are called its”secondary” construction. There may be alpha helices and beta sheets in a protein molecule that is single.
Describe the shape of an alpha helix.
Describe the Form of a beta sheet.
Which type of bond (hydrogen, covalent, ionic) holds these structures in place?

Continue Reading

Stoichiometry

Overview

  • Balancing Equations
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Classification of Reactions
  • Decomposition
  • Dimensional analysis
  • Endothermic and Exothermic reactions
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Limiting Reactant
  • Molarity
  • Mole Concept
  • Mole to mole ratios
  • Observations
  • Percent yield
  • Stoichiometry
  • Theoretical Yield

Time

From the conclusion of this unit, students should be able to Teacher Preparation: See individual resources. The AACT school classroom resource library has all you want to put together a unit plan for the classroom: lessons, activities, labs, projects, videos, simulations, and animations. We constructed a unit plan using AACT resources which is designed to teach the concepts of stoichiometry and limiting reactants. High School This unit supports students’ understanding.

Objectives

  • Apply a specific problem solving method to successfully fix any stoichiometry problem.
  • Balance a compound equation using whole number coefficients.
  • Define and determine the limiting and excess reactants in a chemical reaction.
  • Ascertain the amount of a reactant or product given that the amount of a product or reactant
  • Extend the notion of limiting reactant in the real-life situation to a chemical equation.
  • Identify a response as endothermic or exothermic predicated on lab observations.
  • Identify and calculate the mass and moles of the excess reactant in a chemical reaction.
  • Understand the idea of stoichiometry and execute mole-mole, mole-mass, and mass-mass stoichiometry problems.
  • Comprehend the significance of stoichiometry within a commercial setting.
  • Use a graphic organizer to build a solution to a stoichiometry problem.
  • Use dimensional analysis to complete stoichiometry, percent yield, and theoretical yield calculations.
  • Utilize stoichiometry to confirm the reaction observed.
  • Visualize what’s occurring in a chemical response concerning limiting and excess reactants using particulate diagrams.

Materials

Refer to the substances list given with each individual activity.

Safety

Refer to the security instructions given with every individual activity.

Teacher Notes

  • The actions shown below are listed in the order that they should be completed.
  • The amount of activities you use will depend upon the degree of students you are teaching.
  • The teacher notes, student handouts, and additional materials can be accessed on the webpage for each individual activity.
  • Please be aware that the majority of these tools are AACT member benefits.

Classroom Resources:

Stoichiometry

  • Depending upon the degree of your students, select among the following lesson plans to teach them the way to solve stoichiometry problems.
  • The lesson, Map It Out! This six step process involves differentiating the unknown and known materials writing a balanced equation, picking out the correct mole ratio, determining the path using conversion factors and calculating the yield.
  • The Stoichiometry Set-up Method lesson plan shows students how to follow a practice of visual cues in combination with a step-by-step problem solving procedure for different types of stoichiometric problems. This method may be particularly beneficial for students who struggle with finishing calculations.
  • For more advanced students, use the The best way to do Stoichiometry Issues lesson, that includes a collection of templates for doing stoichiometry problems. The lesson also contains a practice worksheet for students to use to practice using the templates.
  • Utilize the simulation Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometryto give your pupils extra practice on the subjects of response types, balancing equations, and stoichiometry calculations. The simulation is set up as a short quiz which includes five kinds of chemical reaction that pupils need to identify and equilibrium. They are requested to complete one of these types of stoichiometry problems: mass-mole, mole-mole, mole-mass, mass-mass, mole-molecule, atoms-mass, or molecule-mass.
  • Follow your lesson up with the Baking Soda Stoichiometry lab that permits students to decompose baking soda and use stoichiometry to find out the suitable balanced chemical equation of its decomposition.
  • Then utilize the Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry simulation to give your students more training employing a quiz that challenges their knowledge of response types, balancing equations and solving stoichiometry problems. During this quiz students are presented with five distinct responses to test, each using three questions to answer. So pupils will not have the exact same sequence as their peers, the questions are randomized. There are 20 potential chemical equations at the bible, so students may complete it several times without receiving exactly the same problems.
  • Ultimately, connect stoichiometry to actual life with the Stoichiometry of Air Bags lesson program which connects the idea of gram to g stoichiometry calculations via a situation associated with air bags. Pupils are tasked with calculating the amount of sodium gas (NaN3) that has to be made to inflate a vehicle air bag to the correct size. Practice issues are supplied.

Limiting Reactant

  • Introduce the topic with the Limiting Reactant Cartoon that permits students to visualize at the particulate level what happens at a limiting reactant issue. A number of limiting scenarios are revived, such as a simple illustration of how to build a bike to introduce the idea of limiting reactant. Conservation of mass can be demonstrated by calculating masses.
  • You may like to use one of our instructor presentations to present the topic to your students.
  • Pupils observe a series of reactions involving acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate in Zip-lock luggage with all the Introducing Limiting Reactants demonstration. Students examine the outcomes in order in addition to the amounts of reactants used after observing the reactions. They will decide if the response is an endothermic or exothermic process based on their observations.
  • The demonstration, Understanding Limiting Reactants is a comparable source, performing a series of reactions between acetic acid and varying quantities of sodium bicarbonate to be able to inflate a number of bows. Pupils observe the reactions and examine the results in order to comprehend the notion of limiting reactants in addition to the amounts of reactants used.
  • Follow up using one or more of these hands-on activities for your pupils.
  • The lab, Limiting Reactant in a Balloon, allows students to perform a reaction between acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate to determine the amount of product formed and also the limiting reactant.
  • Students may also investigate the idea of limiting reactant using a brownie recipe with the action, Limiting Reactants in Brownies.
  • At a similar lab, Limiting Reactant Chocolate , students use candy to help them comprehend what is meant with the term,”limiting reactant” and identify it in a non-chemistry situation.
  • Yet another action, Cookie Stoichiometry, has students answer stoichiometry related questions utilizing a chocolate chip cookie recipe.
  • Should you teach pupils who struggle with completing calculations, then they may gain in the Map to Solving Limiting Reactant Problems lesson, which shows them how to follow a step-by-step problem solving procedure for limiting reactant stoichiometry problems.
  • Follow-up calculations with the Limiting Reactant Activity to give your students practice drawing particle diagrams to demonstrate stoichiometry and limiting reactants.
  • Finish the subject using the Limiting Reactant Lab, where pupils react copper (II) chloride with aluminum to ascertain the limiting reactant then isolate one product to ascertain the percent yield.
  • Utilize the activity, Calculating Your Carbon Footprint to assess your student’s understanding of this topic. In this activity, pupils apply their knowledge of writing and balancing stoichiometry calculations in addition to chemical equations reflect in their carbon footprint and then to gauge their carbon footprint and exactly what it means.
  • Pupils create a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases to establish a soda bottle rocket at the Launching Rockets laboratory. Besides student activity sheets, this resource includes video instructions comprehensive teacher notes and NGSS alignment.
  • The lesson program, Mechanisms and Properties of Airbags, educates students about the mechanics and properties of airbags, and assesses the choice of airbag inflator from many points of view. This lesson is part of the tools put together from the 2016 AACT-Ford Content Writing Team and comprises NGSS alignment along with links to many short videos about airbags.
Continue Reading